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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous














GHK and Bacterial Infection Protection

GHK has strong anti-bacteria actions in mice against Pseudomonas, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. This was found in 1987 during unpublished safety studies by ProCyte. This was not published or patented since the prevailing expert opinion at that time was that creation of synthetic anti-microbial drugs would always be sufficient to control all bacterial infections. Today, however, the development of drug-resistant bacterial strains such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious problem.

In safety studies performed in 1987 by MDS Panlabs (Bothell, WA), it was found that GHK mixed with an equal amount of GHK-copper 2+ induced a very strong protection against Pseudomonas, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus in mice.

The basic assay was to inject mice intraperitoneally a total of 15 micrograms of GHK mixed with an equal amount of GHK-copper 2+, then the mice were injected with enough of a bacterial strain to kill 50-70% of the untreated (saline only) control mice. In the GHK and GHK-copper 2+ treated mice, there were zero deaths.

A comparable human dosage of GHK and GHK-copper 2+, based on the results in mice, would contain 84 milligrams of GHK and 9 milligrams copper 2+. which appears to be a very safe dosage.


In 1997, it was reported that relatively high levels of GHK inhibited in vitro bacterial growth. (Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M, C Pachatouridis, L Ekateriuiadou, and VP Papageorgiou. “A new synthesis of the tripeptide gly-his-lys with antimicrobial activity.” Amino Acids 13, no. 2 (1997): 155-61.) But the Panlabs report implied an anti-bacterial action effect in the mice at a much lower dosage.


In 2014, some analogs of GHK with attached fatty acids was found to have strong anti-bacterial activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Dec 16. In vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of Gly-His-Lys conjugates as potential and promising candidates for therapeutics in skin and tissue infections.

Kukowska M, Kukowska-Kaszuba M, Dzierzbicka K.

Abstract In this Letter, we presented in vitro studies of antimicrobial activity of Gly-His-Lys conjugates that are important point in preliminary biological evaluation of their potential application in skin and tissue therapies. The novel compounds include the conjugation of fatty acids with a modification of the amino acid sequence in the primary structure of Gly-His-Lys (6i). All the compounds exhibited strong to moderate activity. Compound 1d had the most potent antimicrobial activity at MIC ranges 31.3-125.0μg/mL (against Escherichia coli spp. and Staphylococcus aureus spp.), 375.0-500.0μg/mL (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa spp.). Conjugate 5b expressed activity against Staphylococcus aureus spp. and Escherichia coli spp. at MIC ranges 250.0-500.0μg/mL and 62.5-125.0μg/mL, respectively. Both conjugates 1d and 5b possessed rapid bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria at 2MIC or 4MIC. Conjugates 1b-c, 1e, 2a-b and 4b showed noticeable effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Compounds 1d, 1e and 2e were the most active against fungus.

The full paper can be obtained from Elsevier.


GHK and Defensin Genes

In our analysis, we found that GHK increases human gene expression of Defensin anti-microbial genes.

DEFB1 UP 3.96 fold

DEFB5 UP 3.65 fold



One lab study showed that the white blood cells of men who had been on a low-copper diet were less effective attacking germs than they were when the same men were getting enough copper. An older study in a group of children recovering from malnutrition showed that those who got copper supplements had fewer lung infections than those who got sham supplements. While these studies suggest that severe copper deficiency results in poorer immune function, further studies are needed to find out what effect, if any, milder deficiency might have.

Questions or Advice?

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