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NEW RELEASE:
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics (2018)
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
(2018)
GHK-Cu:
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and Protective
Actions of GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences (2018)
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
Cosmetics
(2018)
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and
Regeneration
(2017)
GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
(2017)

UNITED STATES PATENT:
Non-Toxic
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
(2017)
The Effect of Human Peptide
GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental Biology & Medicine (2017)
Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

(2016)
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury
Oncotarget
(2016)
Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental
Pharmacology
(2015)

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical
and TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal (2015)

GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research
(2015)
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK:
The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology (2014)
GHK & DNA: Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research International (2014)
Enhanced
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
(2014)
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
(2014)
Emphysema-Related
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine (2012)
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
(2012)
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
(2012)
Skin Penetration of Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
(2010)
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
(2010)
UNITED STATES PATENT:
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
(2005)
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
(2005)
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GHK induces genes that activate the protective Ubiquitin/Proteasome system

The Ubiquitin/Proteasome system removes damaged proteins from cells. If these damaged proteins are not adequately removed, the cell cannot function properly.

Ubiquitin is a small protein also called "The Kiss of Death Protein". It attaches itself to damaged proteins. Then the damaged proteins are taken to the proteasomes, which are like the little garbage disposal unit in your sink, and broken down.

Our genome studies found that GHK stimulates gene expression in 41 UPS genes while suppressing 1 UPS gene.

Ubiquitin/Proteasome System and GHK

UP

Gene Title

Percent Change in Gene Expression

1

ubiquitin specific peptidase 29, USP29

1056

2

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2, UBR2

455

3

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 /// ubiquitin D, GABBR1 /// UBD

310

4

ubiquitin specific peptidase 34, USP34

195

5

parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (parkin), PARK2

169

6

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I (UBC9 homolog, yeast), UBE2I

150

7

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4, UBR4

146

8

ubiquitin protein ligase E3B, UBE3B

116

9

ubiquitin specific peptidase 2, USP2

104

10

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 6, UBA6

104

11

ubiquitination factor E4B (UFD2 homolog, yeast), UBE4B

97

12

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2M (UBC12 homolog, yeast), UBE2M

92

13

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 7, UBA7

88

14

HECT, C2 and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, HECW1

81

15

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 3, PSMC3

81

16

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 1 (UBC4/5 homolog, yeast), UBE2D1

79

17

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2, PSMB2

79

18

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5, UBR5

77

19

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21, USP21

76

20

OTU domain, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 2, OTUB2

76

21

proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31), PSMF1

75

22

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2H (UBC8 homolog, yeast), UBE2H

73

23

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N (UBC13 homolog, yeast), UBE2N

72

24

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5, UCHL5

71

25

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 13, PSMD13

70

26

ubiquitin associated protein 1, UBAP1

70

27

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B (RAD6 homolog), UBE2B

69

28

TMEM189-UBE2V1 readthrough /// ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1, TMEM189-UBE2V1 /// UBE2V1

67

29

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1, PSMD1

64

30

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 3, PSMD3

64

31

ariadne homolog, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 binding protein, 1 (Drosophila), ARIH1

61

32

BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase), BAP1

60

33

ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1, UIMC1

60

34

ubiquitin associated protein 2-like, UBAP2L

57

35

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 7 (putative), UBR7

56

36

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2G 1 (UBC7 homolog, yeast), UBE2G1

54

37

itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (mouse), ITCH

54

38

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 4 (putative), UBE2D4

51

39

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 10, PSMD10

50

40

WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, WWP1

50

41

ubiquitin-like 3, UBL3

50

DOWN

Gene Title

Percent Change in Gene Expression

1

ubiquitin associated and SH3 domain containing A, UBASH3A

-89

 


Ubiquitin

This small protein attaches to damaged proteins:

the structure of the Ubiquitin protein

Proteasome

The proteasome is like an open-ended barrel. The damaged protein is pulled in one end, chopped up, and the pieces come out the other end.

Graphic of a proteasome.

Top graphic: Its active sites are sheltered inside the tube (blue). The caps (red; in this case, 11S regulatory particles) on the ends regulate entry into the destruction chamber, where the protein is degraded.

exterior view of Proteasome Protein

Bottom graphic: The damages protein is pulled into one end of the proteasome and the pieces sent out the other end.

sliced (or slide) view of Proteasome Protein

Questions or Advice?

Email Dr. Loren Pickart: drlorenpickart@gmail.com

Alternate Email: ghkcopperpeptides@gmail.com

Call us at 1-800-405-1912 Monday through Friday (8 am to 6 pm) PST